Go Fast Bits BOV TMS Respons Hybrid Blow Off Valve Subaru WRX 2001-2007 / STI 2002-2013

GFB BOV TMS Respons Hybrid MY01-13 WRX / STI  Subaru Tecnica International Inc. (STI) is a subsidiary of Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd. (FHI), which was established to undertake the motorsport activities of SUBARU. STI's core business is supplying motorsport base vehicles and competition parts and planning and developing SUBARU Limited Edition Models by applying special tuning techniques as well as planning and selling accessories and tuning parts to add variety to car life for auto enthusiasts worldwide. Through these operations, STI aims to provide its many SUBARU fans with special satisfaction. In 1972, FHI participated in the Southern Cross Rally in Australia with the first Japanese FF car - the Leone, before bringing out the Leone 4WD (the first AWD car in the WRC) in the Safari Rally in 1980. Following this, in order to respond to a new generation of motorsport with AWD turbo cars, which was expected to take off, STI was established in April 1988. Its founder and then president, the late Mr. Ryuichiro Kuze, was a board director of FHI and a co-driver in the Leone when it debuted in the Southern Cross Rally in 1972. As soon as he founded STI, he and his company planned and operated an event to challenge the world speed record in Arizona in the USA with the first Legacy which would herald in the future for SUBARU. In the event, the Legacy set a new world speed record for 100,000 consecutive kilometres of driving, a record which STI held for 16 years. This is how STI with its mission ‘to make SUBARU world number one', embarked on its journey as a brand which already was enjoying the world's number 1 title. After refining its AWD technology through a demanding Safari Rally, SUBARU began full-participation in the WRC with the Legacy, starting from Safari in 1990. STI's founder, Kuze teamed up with an up and coming British team to form the SUBARU World Rally Team the same year. Starting from the Acropolis Rally in Greece, the team competed under a new Japan-UK organisational structure, with the Japanese side in charge of engines and the British, the chassis. Meanwhile, STI's WRC activities for SUBARU led to the development of a car that could win in the WRC, and in 1992 this was finally embodied as a package - the Impreza. In the WRC, SUBARU clinched their first victory with the Legacy in New Zealand in 1993 before the succeeding Impreza came in 2nd outright in its debut event in Finland the same year. SUBARU made rapid progress after that. They finished the 1994 WRC in 2nd with 3 wins in the season. In 1995 and 96, they won rally after rally with an unstoppable force, and walked off with the WRC manufacturers' title for both years. As the World Rally Car regulation was newly enforced in 1997, the Impreza WRC, which had been developed in compliance with the new vehicle regulation, remarkably won 8 out of the season's 14 rallies that year to become the first Japanese car to be crowned as the WRC Manufacturers' Champion for three consecutive years. Released in November 1992, the Impreza was first used in the WRC in the mid stage of 1993. Although it already had 240PS as standard, it was required to introduce an evolution model to fight against formidable European rivals in the WRC. As a result, the WRX-STI was released in January 1994. Based on the WRX turbo model, WRX STI was equipped with forged pistons, a special ECU and larger muffler. With increased power to 250PS, this model was only built to order and the engine was fine-tuned by STI. Following a minor change in the Impreza in October 1994, an STI version was also released to much accolade. This STI Version featured the Drivers Control Centre Differential (DCCD) as well as a power increase to 275PS thanks to the reinforced cylinder heads and enhanced turbo boost pressure. Its success allowed the STI Version, which was then a limited edition model, to go into mass-production with its catalogue model from Version II in 1995 onward. Since then, the STI Version of the first Impreza - the GC8 type evolved into Version III featuring 280PS in 1996, and then up to Version VI released in 1999. While the Impreza STI Version, initially released as an evolution model for the WRC, continued to develop as a production car, STI planned a series of special specification models with even higher performance. The Impreza 22B STI Version, which was developed to celebrate SUBARU's three consecutive WRC Manufacturers' titles between 1995 and 97, was particularly revolutionary. Fitted with the same wide blister fender used in the Impreza World Rally Car, this model enjoyed a rush of orders upon its release in March 1998, and sold out immediately. As expected, this model enhanced the STI brand, and so STI took a big step forward towards its ideal - to become the figurehead for SUBARU. This direction of premium sport sedans in a limited number continued through the Impreza S201, which was released at the later stage of the GC8 type, and after the full model change of the Impreza in 2000, the S202, S203 and S204, which were all based on the GDB type Impreza. Following the full model change of the Impreza in 2000, the World Rally Car version's base was changed to the GDB type in 2001. Around that time, strong European manufacturers entered the World Rally Car field one after the other and the Impreza WRC improved its performance through competitions against these rivals. Driving the GDB type Impreza, Richard Burns became SUBARU's second WRC drivers' champion in 2001 - the GDB type Impreza's debut year, following Colin McRae in 1995. Then Petter Solberg won the championship behind the wheel of an Impreza, and proving the SUBARU is fast with anyone. SUBARU has won 47 WRC rallies - the most of any Japanese manufacturer; 46 of them in an Impreza, and so, this car now is known familiarly as a true world-class sport sedan among rally fans around the world. Furthermore, in another world championship, the PWRC where Group N cars of near-showroom specification compete, drivers in the Impreza won the title for 4 consecutive years from 2003, including a long-cherished world title for Japanese top rally driver Toshi Arai in 2005 - an achievement he then repeated in 2007. In rallying with Group N vehicles, which are closely based on their production model counterparts, victory cannot be guaranteed without good features in the original base model. While the Impreza WRX STI has established its position as a production model of FHI, STI's development department in close ties with FHI has introduced detailed specification changes at every annual revamp in order for the vehicle to be able to continually display high performance in rally competitions at a customer level. Consequently, the Impreza continued to make brilliant progress especially in the second half of 2000 in national and regional rally championships all around the world. In this way, the ever-evolving Impreza WRX STI consolidates and incorporates feedback and requests from the worldwide motorsport field. At the end of 2008, FHI announced its withdrawal from its WRC programme at a works team level. Following this decision, STI started to consider trying motorsport categories in which the company can capitalise on technologies and resources developed through the WRC to date. One idea was to continue offering their expertise to a GT300 vehicle in the Japanese SUPER GT series. Although racing conditions are different, challenges such as instantaneously delivering strong performance and maintaining durability and capability under harsh conditions are the same as in the WRC. Since the start of development of a new GT300 race car based on the Legacy in 2009, STI has utilised a string of ideas to develop the performance of the horizontally opposed turbo engine for a GT300 vehicle in conjunction with FHI and R&D SPORT which is in charge of team operations and car development. All these efforts paid off with back-to-back wins in the SUZUKA 700km and 500km races in August in 2010 and 2011 respectively in SUPER GT. STI has decided to bring in the following concepts into the development of their sport parts: tuning and setups, which make motorsport vehicles fast, are in fact the same as settings for safe and enjoyable driving for road cars: and smooth driving, which makes the driver feel as if their driving skills have improved, is another ideal. Based on the concept that cars which improve driving skills are cars which can realise comfortable and fast cornering without any difficulties rather than those which are on the limit making the driver nervous, STI also began focusing on the development of complete cars which accommodate parts designed for a ‘flexible yet elegant driving feel'. This direction developed into the ‘Tuned by STI' series after 2007 and then the tS series. In the meantime, the S series - the ultimate complete car in which a ‘flexible yet elegant driving feel' concept was pushed from pillar to post, and the R series, which realises racing style driving, have both been introduced and appeal to many customers. (STI Subaru Tecnica International Inc)

As the name suggests, the GFB Respons is designed specifically with the aim of improving throttle response and reducing turbo lag.

What’s TMS? GFB’s Turbo Management System is the term they apply to their diverter valves that have features designed specifically for the purpose of turbo lag reduction. 

Tests show that TMS features can return the engine to peak boost up to 30% faster than a factory diverter valve when shifting gears.

On top of the TMS benefits, the Respons also packs GFB’s patented adjustable venting bias system found on the Stealth FX.

This unique system allows the amount of air vented to either recirc or atmosphere to be infinitely varied to change the venting sound like a stereo volume dial.

So if you want noise with your performance, the Respons can deliver. By fine-tuning the venting ratio, you CAN achieve a blow-off sound WITHOUT throwing a CEL, running rich, stalling, using more fuel or causing any other problems commonly associated with atmo-venting valves on cars with MAF  A mass air flow sensor is used to find out the mass flowrate of air entering a fuel-injected internal combustion engine. The air mass information is necessary for the engine control unit (ECU) to balance and deliver the correct fuel mass to the engine. Air changes its density as it expands and contracts with temperature and pressure. In automotive applications, air density varies with the ambient temperature, altitude and the use of forced induction, which means that mass flow sensors are more appropriate than volumetric flow sensors for determining the quantity of intake air in each piston stroke. (See stoichiometry and ideal gas law.)
There are two common types of mass airflow sensors in use on automotive engines. These are the vane meter and the hot wire. Neither design employs technology that measures air mass directly. However, with additional sensors and inputs, an engine's electronic control unit can determine the mass flowrate of intake air.
Both approaches are used almost exclusively on electronic fuel injection (EFI) engines. Both sensor designs output a 0.0–5.0 volt or a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal that is proportional to the air mass flow rate, and both sensors have an intake air temperature (IAT) sensor incorporated into their housings.
When a MAF is used in conjunction with an oxygen sensor, the engine's air/fuel ratio can be controlled very accurately. The MAF sensor provides the open-loop controller predicted air flow information (the measured air flow) to the ECU, and the oxygen sensor provides closed-loop feedback in order to make minor corrections to the predicted air mass. Also see MAP sensor.

Vane meter sensor (VAF sensor)

The VAF sensor measures the air flow into the engine with a spring-loaded air flap/door attached to a variable resistor (potentiometer). The vane moves in proportion to the airflow. A voltage is applied to the potentiometer and a proportional voltage appears on the output terminal of the potentiometer in proportion to the distance the vane moves, or the movement of the vane may directly regulate the amount of fuel injected, as in the K-Jetronic system.
Many VAF sensors have an air-fuel adjustment screw, which opens or closes a small air passage on the side of the VAF sensor. This screw controls the air-fuel mixture by letting a metered amount of air flow past the air flap, thereby, leaning or richening the mixture. By turning the screw clockwise the mixture is enriched and counterclockwise the mixture is leaned.
The vane moves because of the drag force of the air flow against it; it does not measure volume or mass directly. The drag force depends on air density (air density in turn depends on air temperature), air velocity and the shape of the vane, see drag equation. Some VAF sensors include an additional intake air temperature sensor (IAT sensor) to allow the engines ECU to calculate the density of the air, and the fuel delivery accordingly.

The vane meter approach has some drawbacks:
-it restricts airflow which limits engine output
-its moving electrical or mechanical contacts can wear
-finding a suitable mounting location within a confined engine compartment is problematic
-the vane has to be oriented with respect to gravity.
-in some manufacturers fuel pump control was also part on the VAF internal wiring.

Hot wire sensor (MAF)

A hot wire mass airflow sensor determines the mass of air flowing into the engine’s air intake system. The theory of operation of the hot wire mass airflow sensor is similar to that of the hot wire anemometer (which determines air velocity). This is achieved by heating a wire with an electric current that is suspended in the engine’s air stream, like a toaster wire. The wire's electrical resistance increases as the wire’s temperature increases, which limits electrical current flowing through the circuit. When air flows past the wire, the wire cools, decreasing its resistance, which in turn allows more current to flow through the circuit. As more current flows, the wire’s temperature increases until the resistance reaches equilibrium again. The amount of current required to maintain the wire’s temperature is proportional to the mass of air flowing past the wire. The integrated electronic circuit converts the measurement of current into a voltage signal which is sent to the ECU.
If air density increases due to pressure increase or temperature drop, but the air volume remains constant, the denser air will remove more heat from the wire indicating a higher mass airflow. Unlike the vane meter's paddle sensing element, the hot wire responds directly to air density. This sensor's capabilities are well suited to support the gasoline combustion process which fundamentally responds to air mass, not air volume. (See stoichiometry.)
This sensor sometimes employs a mixture screw, but this screw is fully electronic and uses a variable resistor (potentiometer) instead of an air bypass screw. The screw needs more turns to achieve the desired results. A hot wire burn-off cleaning circuit is employed on some of these sensors. A burn-off relay applies a high current through the platinum hot wire after the vehicle is turned off for a second or so, thereby burning or vaporizing any contaminants that have stuck to the platinum hot wire element.
The hot film MAF sensor works somewhat similar to the hot wire MAF sensor, but instead it usually outputs a frequency signal. This sensor uses a hot film-grid instead of a hot wire. It is commonly found in late 80’s early 90’s fuel-injected vehicles. The output frequency is directly proportional to the amount of air entering the engine. So as air flow increases so does frequency. These sensors tend to cause intermittent problems due to internal electrical failures. The use of an oscilloscope is strongly recommended to check the output frequency of these sensors. Frequency distortion is also common when the sensor starts to fail. Many technicians in the field use a tap test with very conclusive results. Not all HFM systems output a frequency. In some cases, this sensor works by outputting a regular varying voltage signal.

Some of the benefits of a hot-wire MAF compared to the older style vane meter are:
-responds very quickly to changes in air flow
-low airflow restriction
-smaller overall package
-less sensitive to mounting location and orientation
-no moving parts improve its durability
-less expensive
-separate temperature and pressure sensors are not required (to determine air mass)

There are some drawbacks:
-dirt and oil can contaminate the hot-wire deteriorating its accuracy
-installation requires a laminar flow across the hot-wire

"Coldwire" sensor

The GM LS engine series (as well as others) use a "coldwire" MAF system (produced by AC Delco) where the inductance of a tiny sensor changes with the air mass flow over that sensor. The sensor is part of an oscillator circuit whose oscillation frequency changes with sensor inductance; hence the frequency is related to the amount of air passing over the unit. This oscillating electrical signal is then fed to the car's ECU. These MAF units (such as the one pictured) have 3 pins, denoted +, - and F. F carries the square-wave frequency between - and F. They are powered by +5 VDC from the ECU's regulated power supply.
The mesh on the MAF is used to smooth out airflow to ensure the sensors have the best chance of a steady reading. It is not used for measuring the air flow per se. In situations where owners use oiled-gauze air filters, it is possible for excess oil to coat the MAF sensor and skew its readings. Indeed, General Motors has issued a Technical Service Bulletin, indicating problems from rough idle all the way to possible transmission damage resulting from the contaminated sensors. To clean the delicate MAF sensor components, a specific MAF or Electronics Cleaner should be used, not carburetor or brake cleaner. These are alcohol or CFC-based solvents, rather than the harsh petroleum distillates used in the other cleaners... The sensors should be gently sprayed from a careful distance to avoid physically damaging them. Manufacturers claim that a simple but extremely reliable test to ensure correct functionality is to tap the unit with the back of a screwdriver while the car is running, and if this causes any changes in the output frequency then the unit should be discarded and an OEM replacement installed.

Kármán vortex sensor

A Kármán vortex sensor works by disrupting the air stream with a perpendicular bow. Providing that the incoming flow is laminar, the wake consists of an oscillatory pattern of Kármán vortices. The frequency of the resulting pattern is proportional to the air velocity.
These vortices can either be read directly as a pressure pulse against a sensor, or they can be made to collide with a mirror which will then interrupt or transmit a reflected light beam to generate the pulses in response to the vortices. The first type can only be used in pull-thru air (prior to a turbo- or supercharger), while the second type could theoretically be used push- or pull-thru air (before or after a forced induction application like the previously mentioned super- or turbocharger). Instead of outputting a constant voltage modified by a resistance factor, this type of MAF outputs a frequency which must then be interpreted by the ECU. This type of MAF can be found on all DSMs (Mitsubishi Eclipse, Eagle Talon, Plymouth Laser), many Mitsubishis, some Toyotas and Lexus, and some BMWs, among others.[1]

Membrane sensor

An emerging technology utilizes a very thin electronic membrane placed in the air stream. The membrane has a thin film temperature sensor printed on the upstream side, and one on the downstream side. A heater is integrated in the center of the membrane which maintains a constant temperature similar to the hot-wire approach. Without any airflow, the temperature profile across the membrane is uniform. When air flows across the membrane, the upstream side cools differently from the downstream side. The difference between the upstream and downstream temperature indicates the mass airflow. The thermal membrane sensor is also capable of measuring flow in both directions, which sometimes occur in pulsating situations. Technological progress allows this kind of sensor to be manufactured on the microscopic scale as microsensors using Microelectromechanical systems technology. Such a microsensor reaches a significantly higher speed and sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches. See also MEMS sensor generations.

Laminar flow elements

Laminar flow elements measure the volumetric flow of gases directly. They operate on the principle that, given laminar flow, the pressure difference across a pipe is linear to the flow rate. Laminar flow conditions are present in a gas when the Reynolds number of the gas is below the critical figure. The viscosity of the fluid must be compensated for in the result. Laminar flow elements are usually constructed from a large number of parallel pipes to achieve the required flow 

(Wikipedia)
sensors.

Art.Nr.: RSD-GFB T9003

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